Details


1)Introduction: Definition, classification of surveying, objectives, principles of surveying

2)Chain surveying: Chain and its types, Optical square, Cross staff, Reconnaissance and site Location, Locating ground features by offsets – Field book. Chaining for obtaining the outline of structures, Methods for overcoming obstacles, Conventional symbols, Plotting chain survey and Computation of areas, Errors in chain surveying and their elimination.

3)Compass Surveying: Details of prismatic compass, Use and adjustments, Bearings, Local attraction and its adjustments. Chain and compass surveying of an area, Booking and plotting, Adjustments of traverse, Errors in compass surveying and precautions: Problems.

4)Plane Table Surveying: Equipment, Orientation, Methods of Plane Tabling, Three Point Problems.

5)Leveling: Introduction, Basic definitions, Detail of dumpy Level, Temporary adjustment of Levels, Sensitiveness of bubble tube; Methods of leveling – Differential, Profile & fly Leveling, Effect of curvature and refraction, Automatic levels, Plotting longitudinal sections and Cross sections; Measurement.

6)Contouring: Topographic Map, Characteristics of Contour, Contour Interval. Methods of Locating Contours, Interpolation of Contours.

7)Theodolite Surveying: Components of a Transit Theodolite, Measurement of horizontal and vertical Angles, Co-ordinates and traverse Table.

8)Tacheometry: Definition, Details of stadia System, Determination of horizontal and vertical distance with Tacheometer- Staff held vertically and normal to the line of sight.

9)Simple & Transition Curves: Definition, Degree of Curve, Elements of Simple Curve, Setting out by Linear method and Rankine's tangential method, Transition Curves.

Total Station with Field applications.